FODMAP Diet

FODMAP is an acronym used to describe a group of dietary carbohydrates that can be poorly absorbed in the small intestine and rapidly fermented by bacteria to produce gas.  This gas production can occur in the small and/or large intestine and lead to bloating, pain, nausea, diarrhea and/or constipation in many people.

 It has been suggested that some individuals may be more sensitive to these poorly absorbed carbohydrates. Individuals who may benefit from the low FODMAP diet include those with irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease.

FODMAPs stands for Fermentable Oligo-Di-Monosaccharides and Polyols

Examples of FODMAPs include:

Fructose (in excess) found in certain fruits, honey, and high fructose corn syrup

Lactose: milk and milk products

Fructans: wheat, onions, garlic, and inulin

Galactans: beans, lentils, legumes such as chick peas

Polyols: such as sorbitol and mannitol found in peaches, nectarines, mushrooms and often added as artificial sweeteners

To ensure success, it is recommended you seek guidance from a Registered Dietitian who is experienced in the delivery of the low FODMAP diet approach. The dietitian will ensure that your diet remains nutritionally adequate and you will be provided with suitable food alternatives. It is suggested that the low FODMAP diet be tried for 2 to 6 weeks followed by review by the dietitian, who will then advise on which foods can be reintroduced into your diet.

Food Group

Choose Low FODMAPs

Avoid High FODMAPs

Protein

beef, chicken, tuna, eggs, egg whites, fish, lamb, pork, shellfish, turkey

foods made with high FODMAP fruit sauces or with high fructose corn syrup

Dairy

lactose free dairy, cream cheese( 2 tablespoons), half and half(2 tablespoons), sour cream(4 tablespoons), cottage cheese (1/4 cup) cheese (cheddar, colby, swiss, parmesan, camembert, mozzarella, brie, feta,  goat), ricotta(2 tablespoons), whipped cream

cow, goat, sheep milk, buttermilk, evaporated milk, yogurt, frozen yogurt, kefir, ice cream, gelato, eggnog, custard

Meat, Non-Dairy Alternatives

almond milk, hemp milk, rice milk, coconut milk(5 fluid ounces), coconut water(3.5 fluid ounces), coconut cream(4 fluid ounces), almonds(10 nuts), peanuts(32 nuts), peanut butter(2 tablespoons), chia seeds (2 tablespoons), ½ cup canned lentils, ¼ cup canned chick peas, tempeh, firm tofu

beans, soybeans, black eyed peas, hummus, pistachios, cashews

soy milk(made from whole soy beans)

Grains

gluten-free white bread,  millet bread,  sourdough(2 slices), white bread (1 slice), brown rice, white rice , basmati rice, rice bran, rice cereal, oats, quick(1/4 cup uncooked), granola-fruit and nut(1/4 cup), granola-honey as ingredient(1/4 cup), quinoa, quinoa flakes, polenta (cornmeal), corn tortilla, corn flakes(1/2 cup), popcorn

100% whole wheat or wheat, multigrain bread, gluten-free grains( that contain inulin or pear juice), naan or roti, oatmeal bread , pumpernickel bread, rye bread

 

Fruits(limit allowed fruits to ½ cup serving per meal unless otherwise specified)

avocado(1/8 whole), banana(1 med), blueberry, cantaloupe, clementine, coconut, dried(1/4 cup), cranberry, dried(1 tablespoon), dragon fruit, grapefruit(1/2 med), grape, guava(ripe),honeydew melon, kiwi, mandarin, orange(1 med), papaya, passion fruit, pineapple, pomegranate(1/4 cup seeds or ½ sm), raisins( 1 tablespoon), raspberry, rhubarb, starfruit, strawberry

apple, apricot, blackberry, boysenberry, cherries, dates, figs( fresh), guava(unripe), mango, nectarine, peach, pear, persimmon, plum,  prunes, tamarillo, watermelon, dried apple, dates, dried apricot, dried figs, dried mango

Vegetables

alfalfa sprouts, artichoke hearts canned(1/8 cup), asparagus(1 spear), bean sprouts, beetroot(2 slices), bell pepper, bok choy, broccoli(1/2 cup), Brussels sprouts(2sprouts),Butternut squash(1/4 cup), cabbage, common(1cup), carrot, celery(1/4 med stalk), collard greens, corn, sweet(1/2 cob), cucumber, edamame, eggplant, green beans, kale, leek (1/2 leek),  lettuce, olives, parsnip, peas(1/8 cup), potato, pickle, radish, red cabbage(fermented ½ cup), scallions (green part only),snow peas(5 pods), spinach, squash, sweet potato(1/2 cup), tomato, water chestnuts, zucchini

artichoke, globe and jerusalem, cauliflower,  garlic,  leek, bulb, mushroom, onions,  shallots, scallions (white part), sugar snap peas, white cabbage sauerkraut(fermented)

Sugars and Sweeteners

Dark chocolate(5 squares or 30g), milk or white chocolate(1 fun-size bar or 15g), 100% maple syrup, cocoa powder (2 teaspoons),Stevia, raw sugar, brown sugar

High fructose corn syrup, honey, agave, molasses, maple syrup(with high fructose corn syrup), carob powder, artificial sweeteners: sorbitol, mannitol, isomalt, xylitol

Beverages

coffee, espresso, green tea, peppermint tea, black, white, Chai tea (weak, 8 fluid ounces), orange and grape juice (1/2 cup), wine, red or white (not sherry or port), beer, spirits (not rum), coconut water (3.5 fluid ounces)

any with high fructose corn syrup, fruit juice concentrate, apple juice, pear juice, apple cider, Chamomile tea, Oolong tea, Fennel tea, sherry, port, rum

Condiments and Seasonings

Asafoetida, basil, cilantro, coriander, curry leaves,  dry mustard powder, fish sauce, garlic scapes, garlic-infused oil, ginger, ground chili powder, ground cumin, lemon or lime juice (1 teaspoon) marjoram, olives, oregano, paprika, parsley, rosemary, salt, scallions (greens only),soy sauce, turmeric, vinegar, Balsamic vinegar (2 tablespoons), butter, margarine, mayonnaise, mustard, ketchup (no high fructose corn syrup) 

garlic, garlic powder, onion, onion powder, ketchup (with high fructose corn syrup)

 

Add fiber without FODMAPs:

  • Oat bran (2 tablespoons)
  • Oats, quick (1/4 cup uncooked)
  • Rice bran (2 tablespoons)
  • Baked potato with skin
  • Quinoa or brown rice
  • Tempeh (1 slice)
  • Chia seeds (whole or ground 2 tablespoons)
  • Low FODMAP fruits and vegetables

 

Resources:

www.med.monash.edu/cecs/gastro/index.html

www.med.monash.edu/cecs/gastro/fodmap/iphone-app.html

www.ibsfree.net -Flavor without FODMAPs Cookbook by Patsy Catsos, MS, RDN, LDN

www.katescarlata.com-21 Day Low FODMAP Meal Plan

 

Shepherd, Sue, and Peter Gibson. The Complete Low-FODMAP Diet: A Revolutionary Plan for Managing IBS and Other Digestive Disorders. New York: The Experiment, LLC, 2013. Print

 

Halmos, Emma, et al. “A Diet Low in FODMAPs Reduces Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.” Gastroenterology 146.1 (2014) :  67-75. Print.

 

Barrett, Jacqueline, and Peter Gibson. “Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?” Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 5.4 (2012) : 261-268. Print.

 

Mullin, Gerard, et al. “Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Contemporary Nutrition Management Strategies.” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 38.7 (2014) : 781-799. Print.